Trees, like all green plants, require three essential elements to survive and grow: water, oxygen and adequate nutrients. Photosynthesis is the process that occurs in their leaves, where energy from sunlight, water (from the roots) and carbon dioxide (from the air) are used to create sugar that is used as fuel for the rest of the tree. Water is transported from the roots to the leaves through xylem cells, while sugar is transported back to the rest of the tree through phloem cells. The sugar is then converted to starch and can be stored in the trunk or roots, or used for immediate growth.
Trees absorb their water, minerals and nutrients directly from the soil through their roots. From the stem, these elements are dispersed throughout the tree in its branches, leaves, budding flowers and any fruit that grows on it. It's important to ensure there is enough space between trees to avoid competition for resources. Tree roots grow horizontally out from the base of the tree.
If a tree's root system isn't healthy, it can become susceptible to insects and diseases and may not survive. A lack of sunlight can also be a critical situation since it reduces or eliminates a tree's capacity to produce food. To ensure all trees in your garden thrive to their full potential, it's essential to maintain healthy root systems. This will have a positive impact on a tree's growth and health.